‚Äč
Hematology


Blood Typing System

Not all blood types are compatible. As you look at the charts below, keep in mind that a negative blood cannot get positive but
positive can get negative. Blood typing is based on the presence or absence of inherited antigen substances on the surface of RBC's. Blood types are inherited and come from both parents.



Blood Type
Anitbodies
Present
Antigens
Present
A
Anti - B
A - Antigen
B
Anti - A
B- Antigen
AB
None
A and B Antigen
O
Anti - A and Anti - B
None

Blood Type
Compatibility
A+
A+, A-, O+, O-
A-
A-, O-
B+
B+, B-,O+, O-
B-
B-, O-
AB+
AB+, AB-, A+, A-,B+, B-, O+, O-
AB-
AB-, A-, B-, O-
O+
O+, O-
O-
O-

230px-Blood_Compatibility_svg.png

(Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_type)


Blood Transfusion

When a person receives blood that is incompatible with their own a blood transfusion reaction occurs. This reaction can be deadly and is often caused from clerical error in crossmatching of blood. If blood is transfused from another person, our immune system will make antibodies against it. These antibodies will destroy the blood cells that the body doesn't recognize. The antibodies of the person receiving the transfusion will attach to the red blood cells of the blood being transfused. This causes bridges to form and cells to clump together or agglutinate. This can lead to blockage of small blood vessels and cause the red blood cells to rupture.

What blood type is considered the universal donor and why?
In emergencies type O is considered the universal donor. It is because type O red blood cells lack A and B antigens. This means that the antibodies of the person receiving the blood won't cause agglutination of the red blood cells being received.

What blood type is considered the universal recipient and why?
AB is considered the universal recipient because they do not have the anti - A or anti - B antibodies and their bodies won't react. These people with this blood type can receive all blood types.


Blood Typing Video

ch2[1][1].G2
(Source for picture: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)

In the nursing field it is extremely important to know blood types. Nurses give blood transfusion on a regular basis in the hospital. In the emergency room it is of high importance also. It can mean life or death for a patient. Being observant and knowing the signs and symptoms of blood reactions is a must!


Sources:

www.youtube.com
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
www.wikipedia.com
Human Physiology Tenth Edition Stuart Ira Fox