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02-Chemical Aspects of Physiology
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A cell is so small it can only be seen with a microscope. Cells are a structure, makes the body function and each have a specific function. Three parts make up a cell: plasma membrane, cytoplasm and organelles, and most importantly, the nucleus. The plasma membrane is what gives the cell it's shape and keeps all the internal components seperate from the external structures.It also is responsible for what materials come in and out of the cell. Cytoplasm is the aqeous content of the cells inside. It is where all the chemical reactions occur. The organelles (all structures but the nucleus) perform specific tasks within the cell. Lastly the nucleus is the "brain" of each cell and conducts the cell's activities. It contains genetic codes that decide which proteins will be made by the cell.
Plasma Membrane contents: Cilia, flagella and microvilli.
Cytoplasm contents: Lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplastic reticulum and golgi complex.
Nucleus contents: DNA.
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Active transport is the movement of ions and molecules, against their concentration gradients, from lower to higher concentrations.This requires energy.There is two types of active transport: Primary and secondary. Primary uses energy called ATP. Secondary uses an electrochemical gradient. Passive transport does not require energy to move molecules across the plasma membrane. There are four types of passive transport: Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, filtration, and osmosis.
In order to maintain homeostasis in the body, cells must take up glucose, amino acids, and other organic molecules. The cells get these from the extracellular enviroment and thus uses different transports. Our bodies consume and use energy. Cells in the body are constantly dying and creating new cells.Without the processes of cell transport, our systems and organs would not function and there would not be homeostasis.
Cells communicate by hormones, cell to cell recognition, and through chemical signals.
Sources for this page:
Fox, Stuart Ira. Human Physiology, 10th Edition
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